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Recent and historical weather data customized to meet your needs

Data Services

Data and information are disseminated to NRCC clients via the internet, telephone, facsimile, and the mail. In addition, direct access to the database is provided by an interactive computer software system developed by the NRCC, known as CLIMOD 2 (CLimate Information for Management and Operational Decisions). Telephone callers with specialized questions or requirements are handled by a dedicated, user services telephone line (607-255-1751) that is answered by NRCC staff during normal working hours, 8:00 AM - 4:30 PM (Eastern time), Monday - Friday.

The user services line is backed up by a centralized answering and message system that responds to callers 24 hours a day. Nominal fees are charged to cover the costs of filling data requests or providing specialized types of climate information.

Full-Service Pricing

RCC climate service personnel provide routine consultation with customers to determine their needs for climate information - without charge. If information needs can be satisfied by climate products offered on our websites, you will be directed by the user service support staff to this information and can download the information at no cost. If the information needed is routinely available at our Federal sponsor agency, the National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), you will be directed to NCEI climate service representatives. If you prefer to have the information prepared and sent to you by RCC climate service personnel, the following costs for services will be applied. A cost estimate will be provided to you prior to placing an order for these services.

  • Hourly rate for climate service support staff: $50/hr
    (minimum charge is $25)
  • Hourly rate for non-climate service professional staff: $100/hr
  • Climate Data Certification: $25
  • Additional Charge for Rush Delivery
    (delivery within 24 hours of confirmation of order): $25
  • Additional Charge for "Super" Rush Delivery
    (delivery within 2 hours of confirmation of order): $50
  • Non-Internet Delivery Costs: Total delivery cost dependent on delivery method.


  • Normal business hours are Monday-Friday, 8:00 am to 4:30 pm.
  • RCC routine delivery is within 3 working days. More elaborate or voluminous orders can take longer.
  • This price list conforms with the Standard Pricing Schedule adopted by the Regional Climate Centers.


The CLimate Information for Management and Operational Decisions (CLIMOD 2) system provides clients with web access to a vast amount of data and information in the NRCC database. Some examples of products available through the CLIMOD 2 system include: daily temperature and precipitation observations, normals and records for several thousand sites around the country and monthly data summaries. Additional derived products, such as growing, heating and cooling degree day accumulations, that are useful for planning and managing climate-sensitive operations, are also available through the CLIMOD 2 system.

The CLIMOD 2 system is geared toward users who need climate data on an ongoing monthly or daily basis. Users who have a one-time or infrequent need for weather or climate data should contact the NRCC directly.

Climate Databases

The NRCC database includes a complete collection of historical climate data for the northeastern United States as well as continually updated National Weather Service weather observations and forecasts. In addition, daily and hourly data are available from a number of special state and local networks that measure additional climatic variables that are useful in studies of agricultural production, hydrology, and environmental impacts. NRCC also has developed models that estimate variables such as solar radiation and evapotranspiration that are not widely observed.

Data Sources

The NRCC database includes data from a variety of sources. The majority of the data are collected at National Weather Service Offices and cooperative observer network sites. The National Weather Service Offices, known as first-order weather stations, report a comprehensive array of weather variables each hour, on the hour, around the clock. First-order stations observe and report meteorological elements such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, precipitation type and amount, cloud cover, and visibility.

Cooperative network sites are much more numerous (nearly 900 active locations in the Northeast region at present), but make only one observation at the same time each day. Observations at cooperative network sites are generally limited to daily maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation, snowfall and depth of snow on the ground.

Data are also available from a variety of networks within the region. Variables measured at these networks include soil temperature, leaf wetness, and solar radiation, among other variables. Trained NRCC staff members are always ready to assist anyone in selecting the most appropriate climate data for their needs and in the proper use and interpretation of such data.

The map shows the locations of first-order (stars) and cooperative (dots) stations in the Northeast.

Daily Databases

Summary of the Day (Cooperative stations)

Daily observations of temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth for all stations in the United States. Length of record varies, with some stations beginning in the late 1800s. Updated daily, monthly and annually.

Summary of the Day (First-order stations)

Similar to above except it contains data from first-order stations only and includes many more elements, such as pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation type, sunshine, etc. Updated monthly and annually.

Hourly Databases

Hourly Surface Observations

Hourly observations of cloud cover, visibility, temperature, pressure, humidity, wind, and other meteorological elements from first-order weather stations and additional airport locations around the country. Period of record begins as early as 1948 for first-order stations and July 1996 for other stations. Updated hourly.

Hourly Precipitation Data

Hourly precipitation amounts from a subset of cooperative network sites. Period of record begins as early as 1948. Updated annually.

Special Data Sets

15 Minute Precipitation Data

Fifteen minute precipitation amounts from a subset of cooperative network sites. Period of record begins as early as 1971.

Station History File

Documentation of weather observations at all weather stations, past and present, in the United States. Includes station location, elevation, period of record and variables observed. Updated periodically.

Climate Data Summaries

Divisional Temperature, Precipitation and Drought Index

Monthly averages of temperature, precipitation and Palmer drought index by climate division for all states in the Northeast. Averages date back to 1895. Updated monthly.

State and Local Networks

Cornell Research Farms

Daily observations of temperature, precipitation, snowfall, snow depth, 3-inch air temperature, 4-inch and 8-inch soil temperatures, wind movement, and evaporation. Six New York State sites with variable periods of record. Updated monthly.

Cornell Automated Weather Network

Hourly observations of temperature, precipitation, relative humidity, 4 and 8 inch soil temperatures, wind, and solar radiation. Six sites in New York State with variable periods of record beginning as early as 1983. Updated hourly or daily.

New York Cooperative Snow Survey

Monthly or twice monthly values of snow depth and water equivalent of snow depth from stations in every major drainage basin in New York State. Variable periods of record. Updated each winter as surveys are performed.

Derived Products

Solar Radiation Estimates

Hourly and daily estimates of solar radiation for any location and time period with hourly surface observations. Estimates are made using the NRCC solar radiation model described in NRCC Publication RR 93-4.

Evaporation Estimates

Daily estimates of pan evaporation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration from grass, deciduous trees or bare soil for any location and time period with hourly surface observations. Estimates are made using the NRCC evaporation/soil moisture model described in NRCC Publication RR 94-1.

Soil Moisture Estimates

Daily estimates of soil moisture status for bare soil, or a surface covered by grass or deciduous trees for any location and time period with hourly surface observations. Estimates are made using the NRCC evaporation/soil moisture model described in NRCC Publication RR 94-1.

Precipitation Extremes Summary

Summary of probability of extreme precipitation events ranging in duration from 5 minutes to 10 days and return periods of 2 to 100 years. Available for any weather station with a long record of daily precipitation data. Methodology is described in NRCC Publication RR 93-5.

Northeast US Climate Station Map